Dating phase transition
He described these monopoles as I say that because another peculiar situation was that Guth’s model didn’t work, but nobody cared.
He had bubbles forming in a supercooled environment which is the opposite of boiling, he was treating space like a liquid instead of a ghostly elastic solid, and he had nothing to curtail the exponential expansion. It talks about false vacuum decaying into empty bubbles of true vacuum expanding at the speed of light, but in a universe expanding faster than light.
A lot of cosmologists also thought of the initial expansion of the universe as something fairly steady.
However inflation introduced the idea that the initial expansion was very rapid: As for how it all began, see the 2014 New Scientist article big bang breakthrough: who is the father of inflation?
Whilst only four pages long it’s rather technical and it doesn’t use the word inflation.
So it’s not surprising that it didn’t get much attention.
Then I described the work by Henry and me, showing how the monopole problem can be evaded by extreme supercooling.
There’s more on Philip Cole’s blog entry the early stages of cosmic inflation where you can also see John Peacock saying the first inflation paper was by Erast Gliner in 1965.
It’s by Stuart Clark, who says Alexei Starobinsky published his theory of inflation in December 1979.
Starobinsky’s paper was Spectrum of relict gravitational radiation and the early state of the universe.
Then he heard colleagues talking about the horizon problem, and came up with “his historic inflation breakthrough”.
After his SLAC seminar of January 1980 entitled “I began the seminar by recounting the standard big bang theory and the magnetic monopole problem, reviewing Preskill’s arguments that indicated a large excess of monopole production.
The seminar went smoothly, although it ran one and a half hours, a half hour longer than scheduled”.