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While she notes that the other of the two possible explanations for the destruction is military conquest, she completely rules out this option because "there is no archaeological evidence of warfare, such as human victims or weapons, anywhere in the site." Zuckerman's theory aside, most maximalistic archaeologists and conservative biblical scholars attribute this destruction to the Israelites, mainly due to the "intentional desecration of shrines and cultic objects," including decapitation and the severing of the hands of the cultic figures and idols, which is considered "a practice unique to Israel." 2. Citing Judges , Wood argues that the Israelites destroyed the Hazor of this era under the leadership of Deborah and Barak. However, Hoffmeier refuses to assign this Israelite destruction to Deborah and Barak, objecting that Wood invented an attack on Hazor not claimed in the text (Judg 4).
Hoffmeier states, "[T]he text is absolutely silent regarding any military action against Hazor itself," so "there is no basis to believe that the destruction of the final LB IIB (late 13th century) city was caused by Deborah['s] and Barak's triumph over Jabin and Sisera." Hoffmeier correctly observes that the text does not expressly state that these Israelites destroyed the city, but his argument from silence cannot prove that Hazor was not destroyed during the judgeships of Deborah and Barak.
This undefined number also may be ignored safely for the purpose of the present study.
The final number necessary is 20 years (Judg 4:3) for the period of oppression under "Jabin, King of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor" (Judg 4:1).
In this chapter, the author provides a "king list," which is an account of all of the monarchs defeated by God under the service of Moses and Joshua.
In the introduction to the king list, a common type of record kept by Ancient Near Eastern (hereafter ANE) conquerors, the text notes that "these are the kings of the land, whom the sons of Israel killed, and whose land they possessed" (Josh 12:1).
The destruction of Hazor under Joshua transpired in ca.
1384 BC, and the Israelites' faithfulness to God extended only to the time of the deaths of the elders who survived him (Josh , 31). Given that the exact survival-span of these faithful elders cannot be quantified precisely, this period will not be included in the measurement of time between Joshua's death and the victory over Hazor's king during the days of Deborah and Barak (Judg ). Assuming that the unfaithful, subsequent generation began immediately after the deaths of the elders of Joshua's generation who outlived him, the first chronological reference is to eight years of oppression (Judg 3:8), followed by 40 years of rest (Judg ).Yadin's findings in the lower city confirm that public structures such as the Orthostats Temple and the Stelae Temple were violently destroyed, while the renewed excavations in the upper city-under current excavator Amnon Ben-Tor-corroborate the existence of a fierce conflagration that also is mostly limited to public buildings.This includes both the monumental cultic edifices and the administrative palatial buildings, all of which served as the foci of religious and civil power and wealth at the height of Canaanite Hazor in the 13th century BC. Seemingly, the smaller-scale domestic and cultic buildings in the lower city were not similarly burned or violently destroyed, though the campaign did include the decapitation of basaltic statues of gods and kings, and probably also the smashing of ritual vessels found in the temples. The intentional nature of the desecration of these statues and vessels is clear: "This was a systematic annihilation campaign, against the very physical symbols of the royal ideology and its loci of ritual legitimation." This desecratory destruction is normally attributed to the Israelites, as argued by both Yadin and Ben-Tor. Kitchen agrees, declaring "that neither the Egyptians, Canaanites nor Sea Peoples destroyed LB Hazor-the early Hebrews remain a feasible option." Moreover, Yadin went as far as to make a connection between this particular destruction and the text of Joshua 11: "This destruction is doubtless to be ascribed to the Israelite tribes, as related in the Book of Joshua." In Sharon Zuckerman's wonderful article that whets the appetite of all those awaiting the disclosure of Canaanite Hazor's cuneiform archive(s), she challenges the notion that the Israelites were the actual culprits behind the destruction of the final Canaanite city of the Late Bronze Age, arguing that an internal revolt instead led to the city's annihilation. This long-time senior staff member at the Hazor excavations suggests that Hazorite rulers and elites enforced a dominant ideology, which the populace contested, resisted, and ultimately revolted against due to the political and religious impositions.The biblical author used the verb karath (Judg ), which features the hiphil stem, implying a complete cutting off. The Israelites "went harder and harder against Jabin" until they killed him, meaning that they grew stronger and stronger in relation to Hazor, until they were able to defeat its king.Yet could the mere killing of the king who controlled this entire region be seen as a victory that would earn its way onto the pages of Judges?
The matter that will be discussed here, however, is whether these destructions are distinct or one and the same. above the surrounding plain. Yigael Yadin, the archaeologist who excavated at Hazor from 1955-19-1969, documented the great conflagration that accompanied the total destruction of the final Late Bronze Age city, which he believed to have occurred by ca.