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A key distinction between the two families is that fermions obey the Pauli exclusion principle; that is, there cannot be two identical fermions simultaneously having the same quantum numbers (meaning, roughly, having the same position, velocity and spin direction).
In contrast, bosons obey the rules of Bose–Einstein statistics and have no such restriction, so they may "bunch together" even if in identical states.
Wolfgang Pauli in 1924 was the first to propose a doubling of electron states due to a two-valued non-classical "hidden rotation".
In 1925, George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit at Leiden University suggested the simple physical interpretation of a particle spinning around its own axis, in the spirit of the old quantum theory of Bohr and Sommerfeld.
The minimally extended Standard Model that takes into account non-zero neutrino masses predicts neutrino magnetic moments of: is the Bohr magneton.
New physics above the electroweak scale could, however, lead to significantly higher neutrino magnetic moments.
This picture is correct so far as spin obeys the same mathematical laws as quantized angular momenta do.
Very often, the "spin quantum number" is simply called "spin", leaving its meaning as the unitless "spin quantum number" to be inferred from context.
When combined with the spin-statistics theorem, the spin of electrons results in the Pauli exclusion principle, which in turn underlies the periodic table of chemical elements.
This fact was an early indication that the neutron is not an elementary particle.
In fact, it is made up of quarks, which are electrically charged particles.
It can be shown in a model independent way that neutrino magnetic moments larger than about 10 are “unnatural” because they would also lead to large radiative contributions to the neutrino mass.